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Christina Sinaga





Tujuan Instruksional

Materi ini, pembaca mampu memahami dan menjelaskan kembali tentang

– Pengertian kode etik,

– Peraturan-peraturan dalam Undang-Undang                       Penyiaran No. 32 Tahun 2002 dan

– Pedoman Perilaku Penyiaran dan Standar Program           Siaran (P3SPS) yang mengatur tentang penyiaran di         Indonesia.



Pengertian Kode Etik


Kode etik adalah sekumpulan aturan atau patokan yang harus dihormati oleh pelaku profesi di bidang penyiaran. Dalam konteks televisi, selain narasi atau kata-kata yang diucapkan, gambar seringkali mempunyai arti dan pengaruh yang cukup besar. Itulah sebabnya kode etik televisi juga mencakup aturan-aturan mengenai gambar.

Pedoman Perilaku Penyiaran merupakan panduan mengenai batasan-batasan apa yang diperbolehkan atau tidak diperbolehkan berlangsung dalam proses pembuatan program siaran televisi, sedangkan Standar Program Siaran merupakan panduan tentang batasan apa yang diperbolehkan dan atau apa yang tidak diperbolehkan ditayangkan dalam program siaran.


Peraturan-peraturan dalam Undang-Undang Penyiaran No. 32 Tahun 2002 


Sebagai sumber hukum di bidang penyiaran, UU No. 32 Tahun 2002 memuat sanksi atau hukuman bagi mereka yang melakukan pelanggaran terhadap ketentuan yang diatur dalam undang-undang ini.


Jenis pelanggaran dalam undang-undang penyiaran terbagi atas dua, yaitu:


      1) Pelanggaran kode etik: yaitu hal yang terkait dengan upaya stasiun televisi menjaga etika dan moral ketika menyiarkan suatu program.

Pasal 42 undang-undang ini menyebutkan: “Wartawan penyiaran dalam melaksanakan kegiatan jurnalistik media elektronik tunduk pada Kode Etik Jurnalistik dan peraturan perundangan yang berlaku”.


      2) Pelanggaran teknis administratif: misalnya pelanggaran ketentuan mengenai izin penyelenggaraan siaran, ketentuan mengenai jangkauan siaran atau frekuensi siaran, ketentuan mengenai muatan lokal, ketentuan mengenai hak siar, ketentuan mengenai kepemilikan lembaga penyiaran, ketentuan mengenai laporan keuangan, dan lain-lain.


Sanksi yang diberikan undang-undang terhadap kedua jenis pelanggaran di atas terdiri atas sanksi pidana dan sanksi administratif. Sanksi pidana terdiri dari membayar denda Rp 5 milyar atau pidana penjara 2 hingga 5 tahun, sedangkan sanksi administratif mulai dari teguran tertulis, penghentian sementara acara, pembatasan durasi siaran, hingga pencabutan izin penyelenggaraan siaran.


Pelanggaran kode etik yang diancam dengan sanksi pidana meliputi beberapa hal yang umumnya terkait dengan isi siaran, sebagai berikut:


Pasal 36 ayat (5) menyatakan isi siaran televisi dilarang:


a. Bersifat fitnah, menghasut, menyesatkan dan/atau bohong;

b. Menonjolkan unsur kekerasan, cabul, perjudian, penyalahgunaan narkotika dan obat terlarang atau

c. Mempertentangkan suku, agama, ras, dan antargolongan.


Pasal 36 ayat (6) menyatakan, isi siaran televisi dilarang memperolokkan, merendahkan, melecehkan, atau mengabaikan nilai-nilai agama, martabat menusia Indonesia, atau merusak hubungan internasional.


a. Promosi yang dihubungkan dengan ajaran suatu agama, ideologi, pribadi, dan/atau kelompok yang menyinggung perasaan dan/atau merendahkan martabat agama lain, ideologi lain, pribadi lain atau kelompok lain;

b. Promosi minuman keras atau sejenisnya dan bahan atau zat adiktif;

c. Promosi rokok yang memperagakan wujud rokok;

d. Hal-hal yang bertentangan dengan kesusilaan masyarakat dan nilai-nilai agama;

e. Eksploitasi anak di bawah umur 18 tahun.



Pelanggaran kode etik yang diancam sanksi administratif meliputi hal-hal sebagai berikut:


a. Tidak melakukan sensor internal terhadap semua isi siaran yang akan disiarkan lembaga penyiaran berlangganan (pasal 26 ayat 2);

b. Isi siaran tidak memberikan perlindungan dan pemberdayaan kepada khalayak khusus yaitu anak-anak dan remaja, dengan menyiarkan mata acara pada waktu yang tidak tepat, dan lembaga penyiaran tidak mencantumkan dan/atau menyebutkan klasifikasi khalayak sesuai dengan isi siaran (pasal 36 ayat 3);

c. Stasiun televisi tidak menjaga netralitasnya dan berpihak kepada kepentingan golongan tertentu (pasal 36 ayat 4)

d. Stasiun televisi tidak mencantumkan hak siar dari suatu acara (pasal 43 ayat2)

e. Stasiun televisi tidak melakukan ralat dalam hal terjadi kesalahan pada isi siaran atau berita atau terjadi sanggahan atas isi siaran dan/atau berita (pasal 44 ayat 1)

f. Siaran iklan niaga yang disiarkan pada mata acara siaran untuk anak-anak tidak mengikuti standar siaran untuk anak-anak (pasal 46 ayat 6).



Pedoman Perilaku Penyiaran dan Standar Program Siaran (P3SPS) yang mengatur tentang penyiaran di Indonesia.


a. Rasa hormat terhadap pandangan keagamaan

b. Rasa hormat terhadap hal pribadi

c. Kesopanan dan kesusilaan

d. Pembatasan adegan seks, kekerasan dan sadisme

e. Perlindungan terhadap anak-anak, remaja dan perempuan

f. Penggolongan program dilakukan menurut usia khalayak

g. Penyiaran program dalam bahasa asing

h. Ketepatan dan kenetralan program berita, dan lain-lain.


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