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Rangkuman Kode Etik Penyiaran (Christian Apriyadi)

 

 

Kode etik penyiaran

 

[Pengertian]

Kode etik adalah sekumpulan aturan atau patokan yang harus dihormati oleh pelaku profesi dalam bidang penyiaran. Dalam konteks televisi, selain narasi atau kata-kata yang diucapkan, gambar sering kali mempunyai arti dan pengaruh yang cukup besar.

 

UU Penyiaran No. 32 Tahun 2002

Jenis pelanggaran dalam undang-undang penyiaran terbagi atas dua, yaitu

1) Pelanggaran kode etik: yaitu hal yang terkait dengan upaya stasiun televisi menjaga etika dan moral ketika menyiarkan suatu program.

Pasal 42 undang-undang ini menyebutkan: “wartawan penyiaran dalam melaksanakan kegiatan jurnalistik media elektronik tunduk pada kode etik jurnalistik dan peraturan perundangan yang berlaku”.

 

2) pelanggaran teknis administratif: misalnya pelanggaran ketentuan mengenai izin penyelenggaraan siaran, ketentuan mengenai jangkauan siaran atau frekuensi penyiaran, ketentuan mengenai muatan lokal, ketentuan mengenai hak siar, ketentuan kepemilikan lembaga penyiaran, ketentuan mengenai laporan keuangan, dan lain-lain.

 

Pedoman perilaku penyiaran menentukan standar isi siaran yang sekurang-kurangnya berkaitan dengan:

-Rasa hormat terhadap pandangan keagamaan

-Rasa hormat terhadap hal pribadi

-Kesopanan dan kesusilaan

-Pembatasan adegan seks, kekerasan dan sadisme

-Perlindungan terhadap anak-anak, remaja dan perempuan

-Penggolongan program dilakukan menurut usia khalayak

-Penyiaran program dalam bahasa asing

-ketepatan dan kenetralan program berita, dan lain-lain

 

Dalam menjalankan tugas jurnalistik, reporter harus mengetahui rambu-rambu atau ketentuan yang mengatur kegiatan liputan yang terangkum dalam kode etik jurnalistik.

Di Indonesia, standar baku kode etik jurnalistik yang sekarang berlaku disebut (Kode Etik Wartawan Indonesia) sesuai dengan pasal 7 ayat 2 UU No.40 tentang Pers.

 

1.) Wartawan Indonesia menghormati hak masyarakat untuk memperoleh informasi yang benar.

2.) Wartawan Indonesia menempuh tata caranya yang etis untuk memperoleh dan menyiarkan informasi serta memberikan identitas kepada sumber informasi.

3.) Wartawan Indonesia menghormati azas praduga tak bersalah, tidak mencampurkan fakta dan opini, berimbang dan selalu meneliti kebenaran informasi serta tidak melakukan plagiat.

4.) Wartawan Indonesia tidak menyiarkan informasi yang bersifat dusta, fitnah, sadis, cabul, serta tidak       menyebutkan identitas korban kejahatan susila. Untuk naik pelaku kejahatan cukup diberi nama inisial saja selama proses pengadilan, kecuali jika sudah divonis (Identitas tersangka dibawah umur harus disembunyikan).

5.) Wartawan Indonesia tidak meneima suap dan tidak menyalahgunakan profesi

6.) Wartawan Indonesia memiliki hak tolak, menghargai ketentuan embargo, informasi latar belakang       dan off the record sesuai kesepakatan.

7.) Wartawan Indonesia segera mencabut dan meralat kekeliruan dalam pemberitaan dan melayani hak jawab

 

Undang-undang penyiaran juga memberikan sanksi terhadap kedua jenis pelanggaran yang terdiri dari sanksi pidana dan sanksi administratif. Sanksi pidana terdiri dari membayar denda Rp 5 milyar atau pidana penjara hingga 5 tahun, sedangkan sanksi administratif  mulai dari teguran tertulis, pemberhentian sementara acara, pembatasan durasi siaran, hingga pencabutan izin penyelenggaraan siaran.

 

Pada program Secret Operation Metro Tv, khususnya edisi yang bermasalah “Naga China melilit Garuda” yang tayang pada 12 Januari 2010 pukul 23.00 WIB, substansi persoalannya adalah bahwa tayangan itu menyudutkan perdagangan bebas, mendiskreditkan AFTA (Asean Free Trade Agreement), dan menyuarakan keluhan para pedagang domestic Indonesia (meskipun mereka juga ada keturunan china). Protes dari para pedagang Indonesia tentu masuk akal. Bila barang china bebas masuk Indonesia, mereka terancam turun nilai jual barang lebih jauh dari target, lebih jauh lagi turun angka penyerapan tenaga kerja “alias pegangguran meningkat”. Namun AFTA telah ditandatangani dan globalisasi adalah sebuah keniscayaan yang tak dapat ditolak.

 

Perlu kita acungi jempol pada Alim Markus, pengusaha china Surabaya dari perusahaan Maspion (produsen rumah tangga). Alim Markus menggandeng artis senior Indonesia sekaligus penyanyi Titiek Puspa, Promosi di layar kaca, dengan mengucap yang berdialek china totok, dia mengatakan “cintailah ploduk-ploduk Indonesia” Dia tidak malu malah katanya dia bangga. Ini salah satu cara melawan gelombang perdagangan china. Bila pemerintah tak melakukan apa-apa untuk rakyatnya, tindakan pengusaha seperti Alim Markus patut kita hormati.

 

Bagaimanapun, Indonesia telah menjadi Negara yang menganut system pers liberal, kebebasan pers, dan kebebasan berbicara dijamin oleh undang-undang. Media massa masih memiliki pengaruh terbesar. Bila media massa, seperti Metro TV, sampai tunduk pada bisikan atau imbauan, itu pastilah berkaitan dengan agenda setting-nya sendiri, apakahberbau politik atau ekonomi.

 

 

 

Dunia media massa indonesia juga diberlakukan sensor untuk program infotaiment di televisi. Ini jelas mengejutkan, karena menurut UU Pers No. 40/1999, pers tidak boleh lagi diberedel dan disensor. Bunyi pasal 4 ayat 2 itu: “terhadap pers nasional tidak dikenakan penyensoran, pemberedelan, dan pelarangan penyiaran”. Besar kemunginan, keputusan ini diambil karena infotaiment dianggap bukan produk pers/jurnalistik.

 

Dalam pedoman Perilaku Penyiaran dan Stadar Program Siaran (P3-SPS) memang belum ada bab yang membahas/mendefinisikan program  non factual. Kita yang mengenyam pendidikan tentu memahami bahwa on-faktual sama dengan sebuah fiksi di televisi, film dan sinetron bisa disebut karya fiksi/non-faktual, yang mesti lolos sensor sebelum ditayangkan. Penggolongan infotaiment ke dalam ranah fiksi ini sebagai upaya terakhir KPI untuk mmelakukan sensor kepada program yang telah lama meresahkan.

 

Keputusan DPR-RI, Dewan Pers, dan KPI yang menggolongkan infotaiment ke dalam ranah non-faktual, menciderai demokrasi yang sedang kita bangun. Reformasi di dunia pers dan media massa sangat terganggu dengan upaya melakukan sensor terhadap produk media massa. Begitu kerasnya semangat sensor itu sampai-sampai nalar intelektual diabaikan. Masyarakat berharap awak infotaiment dan praktisi media massa penyiaran pada umumnya melakukan gerekan penentangan, Antara lain dengan menuntut lahirnya definisi factual dan non-faktual lebih dulu, sebelum menggolong-golongkan program. Saya juga berharap kasus ini membuat para awak infotaiment belajar. Beritakan kabar-kabar yang menghibur, sesuai nama programnya. Jangan mengumbar aib yang berujung  ghibah.

 

Menurut pasal 15 UU Pers No. 40/1999, Peran Dewan pers yaitu mengembangkan kemerdekaan dan meningkatkan kehidupan pers nasional. Salah satu fungsinya adalah melakukan pengkajian (riset) pers/jurnalistik. Fungsi ini akan dapat dilaksanakan dengan baik apabila ada unsur akademis dalam kompetisi dewan pers. Fungsi lainnya, melindungi kemerdekaan pers dari campur tangan pihak lain. Kalimat ini sering dimaknai oleh beberapa anggota Dewan Pers sebagai “kebebasan mutlak bagi pers”.

 

Pada tahun 2000-2004, dengan maraknya Koran kuning semacam Rakyat Merdeka, pos kota, Lampu Merah, Rek Ayo Rek, Memorandum;  Dewan Pers secara mengejutkan menyatakan bahwa yang memuat sadism dan pornografi semacam itu bukan Koran, melainkan selembaran, dan itu urusan polisi. Artinya, Dewan Pers hanya mengakui pers yang baik-baik saja. Tidak ada pers yang buruk.

Keterkejutan ini ditambah dengan diterimanya infotaiment sebagai bagian dari keluarga besar wartawan (WPI) dan dianggap program berita. Maka, gossip artis adalah berita, dankabar perkosaan btapapun vulgarnya peliputan di Koran lampu merah dan memorandum, bukan berita.

 

 

Dalam isu-isu media sepanjang tahun 2006, seperti RUU AAP, Poligami Aa Gym, video panas YZ-ME, pemberitaan lumpur lapindo, kepanikan flu burung, dan lain-lain, kecil sekali keterlibatan dewan pers, dewan pers sibuk melakukan sosialisasi UU pers yang sudah agak kadaluarsa (sejak 1999), dengan penekanan pada kampanye dan slogan “Gunakan Hak Jawab”, serta mendorong tumbuhnya media watch, tanpa bantuan yang berarti. Sosialisasi di beberapa kota di Indonesia itu tentu menghabiskan dana tidak sedikit, yang akan bermanfaat untuk melakukan riset perilaku dan produk media, melalui kerja sama dengan lembaga pemantau media di daerah-daerah. Dewan Pers sulit mendapatkan data tentang perkembangan media tanpa bantuan lembaga daerah, mengingat kedudukannya yang terpusat di Jakarta.

 

Keanggotaan Dewan Pers

 

Anggota Dewan Pers periode 2007-2011 telah terpilih dan sudah di kukuhkan dengan SK Presiden. Lembaga konsumen media, organisasi yang tekun mengawasi perilaku dan produk media, didirikan di Surabaya tahun 1999, gagal memasukkan wakil Jawa Timur dalam kepengurusan Dewan Pers yang baru. Bagi LKM, unsur Jawa Timur ini penting, karena dinamika pers Jawa Timur (kuantitas dan kualitas industry medianya) melebihi Bandung dan Jogyakarta (yang punya wakil di Dewan Pers periode sebelumnya) atau Bali (diwakili Satria Narada periode sekarang).

 

Pasal 15 dan 17 UU Pers sangat berkaitan (pasal 15 tentang Dewan Pers, Pasal 17 tentang peran masyarakat mengawasi pers). Namun , wakil masyarakat seperti Henry Subiakto yang mendirikan dan mengasuh lembaga media watch independen sejak 1999, tak dapat kesempatan. Susunan Dewan Pers sekarang didominasi para wakil peruahaan media, wartawan yang masih aktif, atau aktivis organisasi jurnalis/media.

 

Dari daftar anggota Dewan Pers periode baru, yang satu-satunya adalah wakil masyarakat adalah Ichlasul Akmal, itupun dari kalangan akademis, dan bukan spesifik ilmu komunikasi/media massa/jurnalisme. Pada periode sebelumnya bahkan ada anggota Dewan Pers yang menjadi ombudsman sebuah kelompok media besar.

 

Pertanyaannya, sudah tepatkah system pemilihan itu? Pasal 15 dan 17 UU Pers sangat berkaitan (pasal 15 tentang Dewan Pers, pasal 17 tentang peran masyarakat mengawasi pers), namun mengapa justru wakil masyarakat tidak mendapat kursi di Dewan Pers? Malahan, Dewan Pers diduduki oleh para praktisi pers dan perusahaan media mirip arisan (bergantian menjabat), catat saja, diantara 9 anggota Dewan pers yang ganti setiap 5 tahun, isinya pasti wakil PWI, AJI, IJTI, SPS, ATVSI, ATVLI, PRSSNI, LPDS/ISAI, satu lagi tokoh yang diharap dapat meredam “kecurigaan” pada arisan keanggotaan 8 lembaga media (‘orang luar ini dari Atmakusuma, Ichalasul Akmal, sampai Bagir Manan).

 

Berbeda dengan system pemilihan anggota Komisi Penyiaran Indonesia yang melaui fit & proper test di DPR (termasuk di tingkat provinsi), sistem pemilian Dewan Pers tertutup dan berkisar diantara lingkungan mereka sendiri. Mungkin sudah waktunya dipikirkan adanya Dewan Pers Daerah, seperti KPID, mengingat dinamika pers daerah yang luar biasa dan mungkin tak terpantau dari pusat. Atau perlu diciptakan sistem pemillihan yang memungkinkan masuknya wakil masyarakat pemerhati/ ahli pers yang bekerja demi, kepentingan publik luas (bukan hanya kepentingan pers), mengurangi keterlibatan para pelaku/industry pers.

 

Bila kita menganggap Pedoman Perilaku Penyiaran dan Standar Program Siaran sebagai karya monumental KPI, pedoman hak jawab dan Pedoman Distribusi Media Dewasa boleh dikata sebagai karya monumental Dewan Pers. Mudah-mudahan kedepan Dewan Pers dapat betul-betul membenahi kualitas pemberitaan di Indonesia, bersinergi dengan lembaga-lembaga pendidikan tinggi dan lembaga media watch di daerah-daerah untuk pendataan dan pengkajian produk dan prilaku media. Biarkan persoalan Tukul dan Empat Mata menjadi urusan Komisi Penyiaran. Masih banyak persoalan pers yang perlu dibenahi dan butuh kesungguh-sungguhan Dewan Pers.

 

 

 

 

 

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