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Narasumber Berita

oleh : meliana (20150400012)

Salah satu fungsi dari praktisi Public Relation (PR) adalah menyampaikan informasi yang berkaitan dengan kebijakan, rencana program dan aktivitasi organisasi yang terkait dengan kepentingan umum. Dalam pelaksanan kegiatannya PR bekerja sama dengan beberapa media massa untuk mencaai masyarakat luas. Namun ada beberapa hal yang dipahami untuk bekerja sama dengan media, yaitu :

  • Memahami tututan masing-masing media. Media televisi membutuhkan penryataan dan visual yang baik termasuk aksi, gerakan ataupun suara. Media radio membutuhkan pernyataan ditujukan untuk audiens personal. Sedangkan media cetak adalah pernyataan singkat namun jelas serta menarik bagi kepentingan pembaca.
  • Memahami gaya pewawancara. Terdapat empat macam gaya yaitu : pendorong (meminta narasumber untuk menceritakan latar belakang masalah), pembuka (menjelaskan masalah menariknya kemudian bertanya), fasilitator ( mmeberikan kesempatan narasumber menjelaskan dan mengendalikan pembicaraannya sendiri), dan menyergap (memberikan pertanyaan yang menjebak dan menggiring ke pernyataan yang diinginkan pewawancara).

Sebagai seorang praktisi PR, kemampuan penguasaan masalah yang menjadi topik wawancara sangat penting. Kemampuan tersebut sangat berguna apabila wartawan mengajukan pertanyaan yang menjebak. Namun apabila kurangnya kemampuan tersebut maka dapat menjebak atau menjatuhkan praktisi PR beserta organisasi/perusahaan yang diwakilinya.

Dalam pelaksanaan wawancara, terdapat beberpa jenis wawancara :

  • Wawancara yang direkam
  • Wawancara panel atau lebih dari satu narasumber
  • Wawancara melalui telpon atau telekonfren (jarak jauh)
  • Wawancara di tempat kejadian
  • Wawancara mendadak

Hal dasar dalam melakukan wawancara dengan media :

  • Membuka akses langsung dengan media
  • Penjelasan yang singkat dan jelas
  • Membuat sederhana
  • Kejujuran, empati, antusias dan ketulusan

Dalam mengendalikan wawancara dengan baik diperlukan adaya latihan baik dari ekspersi dan gerakan-gerakan tubuh agar terlihat tenang dan meyakinkan saat di wawancara. Latihan secara berulang diperlukan agar terbiasa hingga tidak mudah terpojok akibat pertanyaan pewawancara.

Terdapat tujuh hal penting dalam keberhasilan wawancara, yaitu :

  • Tujuan atau gagasan dalam wawancara.
  • Kerangka acuan : audiens media. Pernyataan menyesuaikan dengan kepentingan dan gaya bahasa yang mudah dipahami.
  • Mempersiapkan pernyataan yang “harus” disampaikan disesuaikan dengan topik (tujuan wawancara media) dan pernyataan yang “Ingin” disampaikan terkait dengan tujuan praktisi PR/organisasi dalam wawancara.
  • Menjembatani pernyataan yang “harus” dan yang “Ingin” disampaikan.
  • Membuat pernyataan yang berdiri sendiri.
  • Pengulangan gagasan yang penting.
  • Menghidari pengalih perhatian terhadap pertanyaan wartawan.

Terdapat beberapa teknik wawancara radio/televisi, yaitu :

  1. Persiapan dengan pengajuan pertanyaan sebagai berikut :
    • Tujuan program wawancara?
    • Alasan pemilihan narasumber?
    • Apa sumber informasi mereka (media) dan dipelajari sebelum wawancara berlangsung?
    • Apa saja yang mereka ketahui?
    • Apa yang ingin mereka pelajari?
    • Dalam konteks apa wawancara akan dilakukan?
    • Berapa lama wawancara dilakukan?
    • Apakah wawancara akan disiarkan langsung atau direkam? Bila direkam, apa saja yang benar-benar digunakan?
    • Apakah mereka menggunakan film atau peralatan lain?
    • Siapa lagi yang akan ditampilkan dalam wawancara itu (pesaing/pelanggan)?
    • Pendapat/gagasan dalam pertanyaan?
  2. Pertimbangan
    • Pertanyaan diputuskan pada menit-menit terakhir
    • Pewawancara memiliki gagasan tentang pertanyaan-pertanyaan yang ditanyakan
    • Diperlukan persiapan sebelum wawancara serta dapat mempersiapakan jawaban yang singkat dan cepat
  3. Kerangka rencana
    • Membuat kerangka utama mengenai pesan yang disampaikan dengan merangkumnya kedalam dua atau tiga pesan.
    • Ringkas
    • Sederhana
    • Pengulangan
    • Pemilihan kata yang berdampak besar
    • Menggunakan ilustrasi agar mempurmudah pemahaman dalam menjelaskan
    • Kesesuaian dengan keinginan penonton
    • Mempelajari penjelasan dengan singkat
    • Pertanyaan apa yang akan layak ditanyakan
  4. Mempersiapkan wawancara
    • Memahami situasi dan suasana sebekun wawancara agar nyaman dan tenang dalam wawancara
    • Menghidari kegelisahan
    • Fokus dengan wawancara
    • Berfikir positif serta tenang dalam menghadapi pewawancara yang melontarkan pernyataan tajam.
  5. Memenangkan wawancara
    • Membaca dan menyesuaikan situasi
    • Tetap tenang dan tetap menjelaskan walaupun adanya fakta yang menyudutkan
    • Jangan biarkan pewawancara memotong pembicaraan
    • Koreksi pernyataan pewawancara yang tidak benar
    • Jangan menggunakan istilah teknis yang menyulitkan
    • Jangan membela diri
    • Jangan mengulang kata yang tidak perlu
    • Terkadang pewawancara biasanya menunggu adanya kesalahan yang diwawancara
    • Hindati kata yang mengurangi keyakinan penonton
    • Hindari jeda yang terlalu lama
    • Jangan mengalihkan pembicaraan
    • Jangan memperburuk jawaban dan langsung memberikan alasan untuk pertanyaan pewawancara yang menyudutkan
    • Tetap tenang, jangan marah, bicara dengan tegas dan sopan
    • Apabila pewawancara keliru sampaikan ketidak setujuan dengan cepat
media2015

38 thoughts on “Narasumber Berita

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